CIMITERI E MEMORIALI DI GUERRA
WAR CEMETERIES AND WAR MEMORIALS
Grob Nieznanego Zolnierza
La Tomba del Milite Ignoto - Varsavia (Polonia)
Tomb of the Unknown Soldier - Varsaw (Poland)
La Tomba del Soldato Ignoto (Grob Nieznanego Zolnierza)
Una delle tombe del milite ignoto pił celebri e conosciute della Polonia, č situata al centro della Capitale, cioč nella piazza Jozef Pilsudzki. Commemora il sacrificio dei soldati ignoti, che hanno combattuto per l'indipendenza polacca. Originalmente eretto per commemorare i caduti della prima guerra mondiale, ora č dedicato alla memoria dei soldati polacchi che hanno dato la loro vita in tutte le guerre.
Ledificio commemorativo č situato sotto i tre superstiti archi centrali dell'ex Palazzo Sassone. Dietro alla tomba sono ancora visibili parte dei giardini alla francese (i Giardini Sassoni), del XVIII sec. ridisegnati all'inglese nel XIX sec., dei quali resta oggi soltanto il viale centrale.
La tomba č stata realizzata nel 1925, grazie al Ministro della Guerra allora in carica, Wladyslaw Sikorski. Il 2 novembre dello stesso anno nella tomba sono stati seppelliti i corpi di tre soldati (un sergente, un caporale ed un soldato semplice) di cui non si conosceva lidentitą. Vennero trasportati durante una speciale cerimonia dal Cimitero dei Difensori di Leopolis.
L'8 maggio 1946, subito dopo la ricostruzione della tomba (distrutta alla fine della seconda guerra mondiale), č stata accesa la fiamma eterna accanto alla tomba del Milite Ignoto, e il suolo prelevato da 24 campi di battaglia č stato deposto nelle urne collocate all'interno del monumento.
La tomba č sorvegliata continuamente dalla Guardia dOnore, effettuata da militari di una unitą in rappresentanza dellEsercito Polacco. Ogni ora si puņ assistere al cambio della guardia, che nei giorni festivi la cerimonia del cambio di guardia viene assistita anche dalle pił alte autoritą dello Stato.
The Tomb of the Unknown Soldier in Varsaw
The Tomb of the Unknown Soldier (Grób Nieznanego Żołnierza) in Warsaw, Poland, is dedicated to the unknown soldiers who have given their lives for Poland. It is one of many such national tombs of unknowns that were erected after World War I.
In 1923, a group of unknown people placed, before Warsaw's Saxon Palace and the adjacent Saxon Garden, a stone tablet commemorating all the unknown Polish soldiers who had fallen in World War I and the subsequent Polish-Soviet War. This initiative was taken up by several Warsaw newspapers and by General Władysław Sikorski. On April 4, 1925, the Polish Ministry of War selected a battlefield from which the ashes of an unknown soldier would be brought to Warsaw. Of some 40 battles, that for Lwów was chosen. In October 1925, at Lwów's Cemetery of the Defenders of Lwów, three coffins were exhumed: those of an unknown sergeant, corporal and private. The coffin that was to be transported to Warsaw was chosen by the mother of a soldier who had fallen at Zadwórze and whose body had never been found.
On November 2, 1925, the coffin was brought to Warsaw's St. John's Cathedral, where a Mass was held. Afterward eight recipients of the order of Virtuti Militari bore the coffin to its final resting place beneath the colonnade joining the two wings of the Saxon Palace. The coffin was buried along with 14 urns containing soil from as many battlegrounds, a Virtuti Militari medal, and a memorial tablet.
The central tablet was ringed by 5 eternal flames and 4 stone tablets bearing the names and dates of battles in which Polish soldiers had fought during World War I and the Polish-Soviet War (191921). Behind the Tomb were two steel gratings bearing emblems of Poland's two highest Polish military decorations the Virtuti Militari and Cross of Valor. Since then, except under German occupation during World War II, an honor guard has continuously been held before the Tomb.
During the 1939 invasion of Poland, the building was slightly damaged by German aerial bombing, but it was quickly rebuilt and seized by the German authorities. After the Warsaw Uprising, in December 1944, the palace was completely demolished by the Wehrmacht. Only part of the central colonnade, sheltering the Tomb, was preserved.
After the war, in late 1945, only a small part of the palace, containing the Tomb, was restored, and opened to the public in 1946. Soil from 24 additional battlegrounds was added to the urns, as well as more tablets with names of battles in which Poles had fought in World War II. However, the communist authorities erased all trace of the Polish-Soviet War of 1920, and only a few of the Polish Armed Forces' battles in the West were included. This was corrected in 1990, after Poland had regained its political autonomy.
Pics by Viktor Salakta
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